(Solution) NR 507 Week 6 Assignment: Case Study Diabetes


NR 507 Advanced Pathophysiology

Case Study Scenario

Chief Complaint

J.T. is a 48-year old male who presents to the primary care clinic with fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst and increased appetite.

History of Present Illness

J.T. has been in his usual state of health until three weeks ago when he began experiencing symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst. He reports that he would like to begin a walking program, but he feels too fatigued to walk at any point during the day. Now he is very concerned about gaining more weight since he is eating more. He reports insomnia due to having to get up and urinate greater than 4 times per night.

Past Medical History 

  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Obesity

Family History 

  • Both parents deceased
  • Brother: Type 2 diabetes

Social History 

  • Denies smoking
  • Denies alcohol or recreational drug use
  • Landscaper


  • No Known Drug Allergies


  • Lisinopril 20 mg once daily by mouth
  • Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily by mouth
  • Aspirin 81 mg once daily by mouth
  • Multivitamin once daily by mouth

Review of Systems 

  • Constitutional: – fever, – chills, – weight loss.
  • Neurological: denies dizziness or disorientation
  • HEENT: Denies nasal congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat.
  • Chest: + Denies cough.
  • Heart: Denies chest pain, chest pressure or palpitations.
  • Lymph: Denies lymph node swelling.

General Physical Exam 

  • Constitutional: Alert and oriented male in no acute distress
  • Vital Signs: BP-136/80, T-98.6 F, P-78, RR-20
  • Wt. 240 lbs., Ht. 5’8″, BMI 36.5


  • Eyes: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation, normal conjunctiva.
  • Ears: Tympanic membranes intact.
  • Nose: Bilateral nasal turbinates without redness or swelling. Nares patent.
  • Mouth: Oropharynx No mouth lesions. Teeth present and intact; Oral mucous membranes and lips dry.

Neck/Lymph Nodes 

  • Neck supple without JVD.
  • No lymphadenopathy, masses or carotid bruits.


  • Bilateral breath sounds clear throughout lung fields. Breathing quality deep with fruity breath odor


  • S1 and S2 regular rate and rhythm; tachycardia; no rubs or murmurs.

Integumentary System 

  • Skin warm, dry; Nail beds pink without clubbing.


J.T. is diagnosed with diabetes. Review all information provided in the case to answer the following questions.

Case Study Questions

Pathophysiology & Clinical Findings of the Disease

  1. Review the lab findings and decide if the diagnosis is Type 2 or Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
  2. Explain the pathophysiology associated with your chosen diagnosis
  3. Identify at least three subjective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.
  4. Identify at least three objective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis.

Management of the Disease

*Utilize the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support your treatment recommendations.

  1. Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended medication classes for the treatment of this condition and provide an example (drug name) for each.
  2. Describe the mechanism of action for each of the medication classes identified above.
  3. Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended non-pharmacological treatment options for this patient.
  4. Utilizes the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support the chosen treatment recommendations


Most Likely Diagnosis of the Patient

The patient is most likely suffering from type two diabetes mellitus. The patient started to present with the symptoms three weeks ago, and he is forty-eight years old. Type two diabetes mellitus starts at adult age which was the case of the patients. The patients have hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia, all risk factors for type two diabetes mellitus (American Diabetes Association, 2020a). The presenting symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst are symptoms of type two diabetes mellitus in adults.

Pathophysiology Associated with the Chosen Diabetes Diagnosis

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is another name used to refer to type two diabetes mellitus. The disease occurs following insulin resistance at the peripheral body tissues. Insulin resistance mainly occurs following the development of obesity and physical inactivity. Normally insulin binds to receptors on cell surfaces and initiates reactions. During the development of type two diabetes mellitus, the receptors become insufficient or unresponsive to the insulin. There is a decrease in Glut 4 transporters hence impeding glucose entry into cells (Galicia-Garcia et al., 2020). The process leads to the incapability of the body tissues to regulate glucose produced by the liver. Following the increased insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion develops. The beta-cell are unable to meet the high demands for insulin at the peripheral body parts (Galicia- Garcia et al., 2020). Later there is a decrease in the production of insulin by the beta cells.

Following the dysregulation of glucose production, inappropriate glucose is produced by the liver cells. The glucose produced is not consistent with the body’s needs and increases fasting blood sugar.….please click the purchase button below to access the entire solution at $15